DIG: On what basis will the Messiah reign on David’s throne? When will that begin? What does it mean that there will be no end to the increase and peace of His reign? How will the Messiah reign on David’s throne? Who will make it happen? What is the difference between zeal and jealousy? What follows the thousand-year Millennial Kingdom? How is it assured?
REFLECT: What does it mean for you personally that there will be no end to the increase and peace of His reign? Where will you be when David’s throne is reestablished? What will it mean to you personally? What kind of a world will it be then? How will it be different? If you are a believer, how does it make you feel to know what great lengths the LORD has gone to prepare a place for you (John 14:1-4)? When times get tough, how does it help you get through the day? How will you feel living in the eternal City of Jerusalem?
The Gospels reveal a Jewish expectation, during the life of Messiah, that a king would reign on the throne of David. In fact, He was executed on the charge that He claimed to be king of the Jews, thus implying political and military rebellion against Rome (Mark 11:10, 15:2a and 26). The request of James and John for seats on His left and right suggests that the disciples viewed Jesus’ kingdom in terms of political authority and social supremacy (Mark 10:35-45). Furthermore, the question posed by the disciples in Acts 1:6 indicates a nationalistic understanding of His kingdom. Jesus Himself was well aware of the popular expectations surrounding the Davidic Messiah.
Although Jesus accepted the Davidic sonship of the Messiah, during His First Coming, He rejected the nationalistic and militaristic ideas of the Son (or descendent) of David that were so much a part of Jewish expectation. Interestingly, He never claimed to be the Son of David. Even Yeshua’s answer to the question Pontius Pilate put to Him regarding His kingship was vague in the original Aramaic (Mark 15:2b). The most natural interpretation of Jesus’ reluctance in this matter is that He wished to avoid any tendency on the part of the Jewish nation to see Him as primarily a military leader who would overthrow Rome (Luke 22:47-53; John 6:15, 18:33-38). Like the other prophets, Isaiah was not aware of the great time gap between Messiah’s two Comings. It was a mystery to the righteous of the TANAKH (Romans 16:25; Ephesians 3:3-5 and 8-10). However, this will all change at His Second Coming. At that time there will be no ambiguity. Who He is will be completely obvious, because He will reign on David’s throne and over His kingdom, establishing and upholding it (see my commentary on The Life of Christ Ai – The Genealogies of Joseph and Mary).
There are four components of Israel’s final restoration, and each one is based on a specific covenant (see my commentary on Revelation Fj – My Chosen People Will Inherit My Mountains). The fourth component is the reestablishment of the throne of king David, which is based on the Davidic Covenant (Second Samuel 7:11b-16; First Chronicles 17:10b-14). The Messiah holds three offices: prophet, priest and king. However, He does not function in all these offices simultaneously. Rather, the functioning of these three offices is to be carried out in a chronological sequence. During His first ministry on earth, at His First Coming, Jesus functioned in the office of a prophet. But this ceased at the time of His death. Since His death and resurrection, and until He returns, He is functioning in the office of a priest. This ministry will cease at the Second Coming. Yeshua has never yet functioned in the office of a king. For Him to do so, there must be the reestablishment of the throne of David upon which He will sit to rule as King over Israel and King of the world (Psalm 89:3-4, 29, 34-37; Jeremiah 33:17-26; Amos 9:11-12). This ministry will begin at the Second Coming. Therefore, the promises that ADONAI made to Israel have not been forgotten. Israel is yet to enjoy all the promises of the four unfulfilled, unconditional covenants, each of which points respectively to the four components of Israel’s final restoration.
Of the increase of His government and peace there will be no end (9:7a). Once again it is clear that Isaiah has the far eschatological future in mind. The person will not be a king among kings in Israel. More accurately, He will be the final King, the King to end all kings. This is why Isaiah foresees the ideal Davidic sovereign. ADONAI has not rejected His ancient promise to David, but the fact that the promise was made did not legitimize everything that one of David’s descendents, such as Ahaz, might do. But what it does mean, as with the nation of Israel, is that the LORD will work in history to keep His promise and His integrity at the same time. There will be One who establishes the throne of David on the basis of justice and righteousness as opposed to cruelty and intimidation. At that time, it will be quite clear that God is with us (Cb – The LORD Himself Will Give You A Sign), not only in deliverance from the threat of the Syria-Israel alliance (Bx – The Hearts of Ahaz and His People Were Shaken), but in an endless rule of justice, righteousness and peace.
Isaiah acknowledged that the reason Messiah will reign on David’s throne and over His kingdom, establishing and upholding it (9:7b), is the zeal of the LORD of heaven’s armies. It will only happen because He will accomplish it (9:7d). The coming of the Millennial Kingdom, and then the Eternal State after it, depends on ADONAI, not Israel. He promised it, and He is a promise keeper. Without His sovereign intervention there would be no kingdom of Israel.
Zeal and jealousy are two sides of the same coin. Both speak of concern for someone that long to be first place in their life. Jealously, as it is used today, depicts someone who is petty, self-centered, and unreasoning. Zeal, however, portrays a consuming concern for the other person’s best interest and a burning desire to protect them. One is positive and noble, while the other is negative and small-minded. The LORD’s zeal for His wife is both just and righteous (see my commentary on Revelation Ft – The Wife of the Lamb). Even though she was unfaithful to Him: Return, faithless people, declared the LORD, for I am your husband (Jeremiah 3:11-20), He redeemed her (Hosea 3:1-5) even though she had committed spiritual adultery (Hosea 1:2).
With justice and righteousness the Messiah will uphold David’s throne from that time on and forever (9:7c). His rule will have no end (Samuel 7:14, 27; Micah 4:7; Luke 1:33; Revelation 11:15). The Messianic Kingdom itself lasts for one thousand years. Yet, according to the promises of God’s Covenant with David (Second Samuel 7:5-16), there was to be an eternal dynasty, an eternal City (see my commentary on Revelation Fu – A Great High Wall with Twelve Gates), and an eternal throne. The eternal existence of the dynasty is guaranteed because it ends in the eternal person of Yeshua the Messiah. However, the eternal existence of the throne and the Kingdom must also be assured. The Millennial Kingdom will end after a thousand years. But God’s Kingdom will continue forever and ever into the Eternal Order (see my commentary on Revelation Fq – The Eternal Order), because Jesus will continue to rule on David’s throne.
The Teaching Ministry of Jay Mack 2006-2013